Entrepreneurial feminism in Kigali

A social feminism and liberalism perspective

Keywords: Entrepreneurial feminism, permission, constraint, glass ceiling, Kigali


Entrepreneurship has been attributed to a masculine career in many economies. Rwanda was no exception to the discrimination of women in entrepreneurship. Due to gender, stereotype, and patriarchy, Rwandan women were not free in deciding to participate in entrepreneurial feminism. Some women became liberalists to break the glass ceiling to launch entrepreneurial feminism. They faced constraints that included a lack of entrepreneurship skills, market opportunity, and fear of failure. This article aimed to explore how gender affects new entrepreneurial feminism creation in Kigali. A quantitative approach used to collect survey data from 409 women-owned SMEs in Kigali were selected purposively. The findings indicated that most women-owned SMEs in Kigali started a necessary business due to unemployment. In contrast, those who needed time to care for their family while generating income launched the opportunity business. (64.3%) accepted permission from partners to start a business. While (24.9%) broke the glass ceiling. A lack of entrepreneurship skills was the major constraint they faced.


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Author Biography

Simon Nsengimana, Doctor. Cape Peninsula University of Technology. South Africa.

Mr Simon Nsengimana (Dr Nsengimana in April 2021 graduation) is from Rwanda and has completed his doctoral studies under extreme conditions. His focus area is ICT and entrepreneurship and he is an upcoming researcher and academic scholar.


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How to Cite
Naicker, V., & Nsengimana, S. (2021). Entrepreneurial feminism in Kigali: A social feminism and liberalism perspective. Harvard Deusto Business Research, 10(2), 317-336. https://doi.org/10.48132/hdbr.323